1. Metanarrative is (in postmodernist literary theory) a narrative about a narrative or narratives.
2. Essentialism is a doctrine that uses traditional concepts and skills that are essential to society and should be taught to all students.
3. Utopian is relating to, or resembling Utopia, as an idealized imaginary island.
4. Axiomatic is a pertaining to or of the nature of an axiom; self-evident.
5. Dystopian is a society characterized by human misery, oppression, disease, and overcrowding.
6. Scepticism is a sceptical attitude that has doubt about the truth of something.
7. Relativism shows the doctrine that knowledge, truth, and morality exist in relation to culture, society, or historical context.
8. Pluralism is a form of society in which the members of minority groups maintain their independent cultural traditions.